A while back, I wrote a Facebook post lamenting the loss of the preposition “from” in the phrase “to graduate from college.” Apparently, in increasingly common usage, one no longer graduates from college, one “graduates college.” (There are lots of reasons why this oddly truncated phrase doesn’t work, which I’ll let Grammar Girl describe in detail. To me it’s like fingernails on a chalkboard.).
This led to a discussion about prepositions in general, with predictable side trips into regionalisms/colloquialisms, prescriptivism vs. descriptivism, language evolution (or devolution), etc., but what it all boiled down to was that prepositions are little words and, in English at least, are sometimes easily tossed aside.
(That said, I’ll challenge anyone who defends “graduate college” to explain why he doesn’t also “go school” or “sleep night”).
Me being me (yes, the geek is back!), this got me thinking about the vital role the humble preposition plays in the Irish language.
Little Word, Big Job
First let’s talk about the basic function of a preposition. Here’s what Merriam-Webster has to say about it:
Prepositions show direction, location, or time, or introduce an object. They are usually followed by an object—a noun, noun phrase, or pronoun. The most common prepositions are little and very common:
at, by, for, from, in, of, on, to, with
Prepositions typically show how the noun, noun phrase, or pronoun is related to another word in the sentence.
a friend of mine
the dress with the stripes
hit by a ball
no one except me
That’s a lot of work for a bunch of small words!
And how they work can vary greatly from country to country and from region to region, as this article demonstrates:
Still, useful and perplexing as they are in English, prepositions take on a whole new job when it comes to Irish. They can take the place of verbs.
Let me explain
Perhaps the above needs a little explanation. It’s not that Irish doesn’t have verbs. Irish has plenty of verbs, and conjugating them drives new learners crazy (Though I’m not sure why. Irish verb construction is really very simple. More on that in another post).
English, however, is much more reliant on verbs to convey meaning. We have a dedicated verb for just about every conceivable action. Give us a concept and we can verb it (see what I did there?).
Irish, on the other hand, often favors a preposition, supported by some form of the verb “to be” to convey the same concepts. For example, in English we have (verbs in bold):
- Seán has a new car
- Máire is sick
- Gráinne loves chocolate
- Síle loves Sinéad
- Éamonn hates tomatoes
The same sentences in Irish (verbs underlined; prepositions in bold):
- Tá carr nua ag Seán. (Literally “Is car new at Seán”)
- Tá tinneas ar Mháire (Literally “Is sickness on Máire”)
- Is maith le Gráinne seacláid (Literally “Is good with Gráinne chocolate”)
- Tá grá ag Síle do Shinéad (Literally “Is love at Síle for Sinéad”)
- Is fuath le Éamonn trátaí (Literally “Is hatred with Éamonn tomatoes”)
“Tá” and “Is” are both words that correspond to the verb “to be” in English (they’re not used interchangeably, but that also is a subject for another post…or maybe a book…or perhaps a small library).
But wait…there’s more!
An interesting thing about Irish prepositions (and a feature of Celtic languages in general) is that they have a special affinity with another class of small words that begins with “P” — pronouns. Irish conjugates prepositions by joining them with pronouns, in a form that is formally called a “prepositional pronoun.”
Knowing how prepositional pronouns work is integral to learning and speaking Irish (unless you want to sound like Tarzan).
Meet the pronouns
You probably remember from school that a pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun (which saves us from having to say such things as “Audrey drives Audrey’s car to Audrey’s office every morning. Audrey gets out of Audrey’s car and unlocks the door to Audrey’s office and then goes to Audrey’s desk and checks Audrey’s email” which would be a pretty tedious and cumbersome way to talk, you have to admit).
These are the pronouns in English:
These are the pronouns in Irish:
Muid or sinn (“sinn” is primarily used in Munster)
Because all nouns in Irish, animate or inanimate, have grammatical gender, Irish doesn’t have an equivalent of the neuter inanimate pronoun “it.” Also, unlike contemporary English, Irish has singular and plural forms of “you”: tú/thú for singular and sibh for plural.
Putting it all together
In Irish, you can’t just put a pronoun next to a preposition. You must combine the two into a “prepositional pronoun.” For example, you can’t say:
You have to say:
Here’s the full conjugation of “ag” (“at):
Agam (“at me”)
Agat (“at you” – singular)
Aige (“at him”)
Aici (“at her”)
Againn (“at us”)
Agaibh (“at you” – plural)
Acu (“at them”)
Here are the sentences I used earlier, each with one noun replaced with a prepositional pronoun:
- Tá carr nua aige. (Literally “Is car new at him,” i.e., “He has a new car”)
- Tá tinneas uirthi (Literally “Is sickness on her,” i.e., “She is sick”)
- Is maith léi seacláid (Literally “Is good with her chocolate,” i.e., “She likes chocolate”)
- Tá grá ag Síle di (Literally “Is love at Síle for her,”i.e., “Síle loves her”)
- Is fuath leis trátaí (Literally “Is hatred with him tomatoes,” i.e., “He hates tomatoes”)
What this all comes down to is that, when translating many common phrases from English to Irish, you need to know at least three things:
1) Is this an instance that requires a preposition rather than a dedicated verb?
2) If so, which preposition is required?
3) If I want to use a pronoun, how does that pronoun combine with the preposition?
(There are actually a few more things you have to know, such as “how does the preposition affect a word that follows it?” but we’ll deal with that somewhere/time down the road).
Bad news for wannabe translators
There are myriad reasons why a person who isn’t reasonably fluent in Irish (or in any other language not their own) shouldn’t attempt translations for anything permanent or public. This is one of the biggies. Idioms involving prepositions and prepositional pronouns are integral to the language. There’s just no getting around that. And if you don’t know how to use them, you’re going to get it wrong — guaranteed.
And if I’ve said it once, I’ve said it a hundred times YOU CANNOT RELY ON GOOGLE TRANSLATE. Seriously. Just don’t. If you need an example or two of how just how badly Google handles Irish, check out this post I wrote for Bitesize Irish a few years back:
I’m sorry to say it hasn’t improved much in the intervening seven-plus years.
Translator’s bane, learner’s boon
If you’re learning Irish, or contemplating doing so (maybe as a New Year’s resolution!), this may seem a bit daunting. Don’t let it worry you.
The fact that these idioms are so integral to Irish means that you will begin encountering them from your earliest lessons, and the more common ones will become familiar very, very quickly. These include the kinds of sentences you will use over and over again, such as:
- Those involving possessions
- Those involving physical attributes
- Those involving desires, likes, and dislikes
- Those involving health/physical condition
It won’t take you long to begin to get a feel for the patterns. And when you need help, this is one case in which your favorite dictionary can be really useful.
Most dictionaries, whether print or on-line, have extensive entries on prepositions, which will not only give you the prepositional pronoun forms, but lots of examples of usage. Here’s an example from Teanglann.ie:
You’ll get it — I promise! And faster than you might think.
The Geek is back!
You may have noticed that I haven’t been around for a while (You have noticed, haven’t you? Please tell me you noticed! Actually, if you haven’t, don’t tell me!). Adjusting to working full time after 20+ years of working from home, as well as dealing with some health issues, put a cramp in my style for a bit.
I’m back now, though, and I made two resolutions for 2020:
- To get this post finished and posted by the end of New Year’s Day (nailed it!)
- To write more frequently in 2020 (I’m aiming for publishing fortnightly, if possible. Hold me to it!)
If you think of something you’d like me to write about regarding Irish and/or translation, please let me know! You can say it in the comments below or message me via WordPress.
Athbhliain faoi rath is faoi mhaise daoibh! (A lovely and prosperous New Year to you all!)
Le meas, GG
In addition to being “The Geeky Gaeilgeoir,” Audrey Nickel is the author of The Irish Gaelic Tattoo Handbook,” published by Bradan Press, Nova Scotia, Canada. For information about the book, including where to buy it, please visit http://www.bradanpress.com/irish-tattoo-handbook/